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JavaScript is a programming language oriented concept prototypes.  It is mainly used to introduce functionality into Web pages, Javascript code on these pages are run by the browser.

The language is known for its use in building web sites, but is used for these embedded objects (?embedded objects) in other applications.

It was originally developed by Brendan Eich at Netscape Communications Corporation under the name Mocha, then LiveScript, and finally called JavaScript.
The most common use of JavaScript is web page scripting. Web Programmers can insert in HTML pages scripts for various activities such as checking data entered by users or creating animated menus and other effects.

Browsers retain in memory a representation of a web page as a tree of objects and make available these objects JavaScript scripts that can read and manipulate.  Tree of objects called the Document Object Model or DOM.